Time evolution of the external electric field (black), fluid velocity (green/yellow), and charge distribution (blue/red) in an electrolyte model.
The generation of the counter-rotating vortices in the presence of a time-varying electric field is referred to as
alternating-current induced charge electro-osmosis.
Fluctuating hydrodynamics model of a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL)
1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [DMPI+][F6P-] between two oppositely charged electrodes. The
brain-like patterns result from a balance between electrostatic forces and interfacial tension.
Top: turbulent mixing of milk and iced thai tea; bottom: vortex dynamics in a rising plume of smoke. Photography by Isaac Burns.